1. PapyrusWe owe the invention of paper to the Egyptian papyrus or the Egyptian paper. The Egyptians made paper from the Cyprus papyrus plant that grows along the banks of river Nile. As early as 3000 B.C, the Egyptians had developed the technique of using papyrus to make paper, mats, baskets, ropes and sandals. The pith of the plant was taken out and cut into long strips. These strips were placed crosswise on each other and the sheet was put under weight for a couple of days so that the strips would bind with each other. The quality of papyrus paper is evident from the fact that they are still intact about 5000 years after they were written on.
2. Black Ink
The Egyptians mixed soot with vegetable gum and bee wax. They substituted soot with other organic material to make ink of different colors. For example, they used oc The Egyptians mixed soot with vegetable gum and bee wax. They substituted soot with other organic material to make ink of different colors. For example, they used ochre in place of soot to make red ink. How good their ink was is clear from the fact that manuscripts written in Egyptian ink centuries back are still clear and legiblehre in place of soot to make red ink. How good their ink was is clear from the fact that manuscripts written in Egyptian ink centuries back are still clear and legible
3. The Ox-drawn Plow
The Ox-drawn plow was an invention that not only revolutionized the way agriculture was carried on in the Egyptian communities, but a modified version of it is still used by farmers of back ward countries who cannot afford machines to plow their fields. Using the power of oxen to pull the plow, made loosening the soil much easier and faster than doing it with hands or using human beings to pull the plow.
4. Clocks:They invented two types of clocks:
1. The sun clock:
The sun clocks were obelisks whose moving shadow throughout the day helped the early Egyptians to divide the day into morning and afternoon. The Egyptians also determined the longest and the shortest day of the year by noting the days when the shadow of the obelisk was the longest and shortest at the noon.
2. The water clock:
as early 1417-1379 B.C., during the reign of Amenhotep III that let them read time at night. The water clock was a stone vessel with slanting sides and a small hole at the bottom through which water would drip at a constant rate. The changing level of water along the markings on the inner walls of the vessel, as it dripped out of the vessel, would indicate the passage of each hour.
5. The Sun CalendarAncient civilizations marked time using the lunar calendars. The Egyptians were the first to have established a solar calendar consisting of twelve months, each of which had 30 days plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. They made the first leap year calendar in 238 B.C. and added an extra day every fourth year.